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Mining is the process by which Bitcoin comes into existence.
Specialized software validates all the transactions made using Bitcoin.
As a reward those who validate the transactions (by executing complex mathematical operations) get some Bitcoin.
At first, when Bitcoin was starting, you could mine several Bitcoin a day with a single CPU, then you needed some more power, ...
Today the network is so robust that you need a large amount of computing power to hope get a few Bitcoin.
That's when Cloud mining came to being